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Hades Greek God Information

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Hades Greek God Information

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He was aided by the dog Cerberus. Though Hades supervised the trial and punishment of the wicked after death, he was not normally one of the judges in the underworld, nor did he personally torture the guilty, a task assigned to the Furies Erinyes.

Hades was depicted as stern and pitiless, unmoved by prayer or sacrifice like death itself. Forbidding and aloof, he never quite emerges as a distinct personality from the shadowy darkness of his realm, not even in the myth of his abduction of Persephone.

Those dark and unknowable aspects were complemented by an opposite and beneficial aspect. He was often called Zeus with the addition of a special title e.

In the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible , the word Hades is used for Sheol , denoting a dark region of the dead. Tartarus , originally denoting an abyss far below Hades and the place of punishment in the lower world, later lost its distinctness and became almost a synonym for Hades.

Hades Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.

External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

Hades and Persephone in the underworld, interior of a Greek red-figured kylix cup , from Vulci, c. Britannica Quiz. Demeter and Persephone run towards each other and embrace one another, happy that they are reunited.

Demeter, however, suspects that Persephone may have eaten food while down in the Underworld, and so she questions Persephone, saying:.

Speak out and hide nothing, but let us both know. For if you have not, you shall come back from loathly Hades and live with me and your father , the dark-clouded son of Cronos and be honored by all the deathless gods; but if you have tasted food, you must go back again beneath the secret places of the earth, there to dwell a third part of the seasons every year: yet for the two parts you shall be with me and the other deathless gods.

But when the earth shall bloom with the fragrant flowers of spring in every kind, then from the realm of darkness and gloom thou shalt come up once more to be a wonder for gods and mortal men.

And now tell me how he rapt you away to the realm of darkness and gloom, and by what trick did the strong Host of Many beguile you?

Persephone does admit that she ate the food of the dead, as she tells Demeter that Hades gave her a pomegranate seed and forced her to eat it.

Persephone's eating the pomegranate seed binds her to Hades and the Underworld, much to the dismay of Demeter. Zeus, however, had previously proposed a compromise, to which all parties had agreed: of the year, Persephone would spend one third with her husband.

It is during this time, when Persephone is down in the Underworld with her husband, that winter falls upon the earth, "an aspect of sadness and mourning.

Theseus and Pirithous pledged to kidnap and marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen and together they kidnapped her and decided to hold onto her until she was old enough to marry.

Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus' mother, Aethra , and traveled to the Underworld. Hades knew of their plan to capture his wife, so he pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast; as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there.

Theseus was eventually rescued by Heracles but Pirithous remained trapped as punishment for daring to seek the wife of a god for his own.

Heracles ' final labour was to capture Cerberus. First, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. He did this to absolve himself of guilt for killing the centaurs and to learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive.

He found the entrance to the underworld at Taenarum. Athena and Hermes helped him through and back from Hades. Heracles asked Hades for permission to take Cerberus.

Hades agreed as long as Heracles didn't harm Cerberus. When Heracles dragged the dog out of Hades, he passed through the cavern Acherusia. The nymph Minthe , associated with the river Cocytus , loved by Hades, was turned into the mint plant , by a jealous Persephone.

Hades, as the god of the dead, was a fearsome figure to those still living; in no hurry to meet him, they were reluctant to swear oaths in his name, and averted their faces when sacrificing to him.

Since to many, simply to say the word "Hades" was frightening, euphemisms were pressed into use. Since precious minerals come from under the earth i.

Sophocles explained the notion of referring to Hades as Plouton with these words: "the gloomy Hades enriches himself with our sighs and our tears.

He spent most of the time in his dark realm. Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachy , the battle of the Olympians versus the Titans , which established the rule of Zeus.

Feared and loathed, Hades embodied the inexorable finality of death: "Why do we loathe Hades more than any god, if not because he is so adamantine and unyielding?

When the Greeks propitiated Hades, they banged their hands on the ground to be sure he would hear them.

While some suggest the very vehemence of the rejection of human sacrifice expressed in myth might imply an unspoken memory of some distant past, there is no direct evidence of such a turn.

The person who offered the sacrifice had to avert his face. One ancient source says that he possessed the Cap of invisibility.

His chariot, drawn by four black horses, made for a fearsome and impressive sight. His other ordinary attributes were the narcissus and cypress plants, the Key of Hades and Cerberus , the three-headed dog.

This is believed to hold significance as in certain classical sources Hades ravished Kore in the guise of a snake, who went on to give birth to Zagreus-Dionysus.

He also notes that the grieving goddess Demeter refused to drink wine, as she states that it would be against themis for her to drink wine, which is the gift of Dionysus, after Persephone's abduction, because of this association; indicating that Hades may in fact have been a "cover name" for the underworld Dionysus.

Evidence for a cult connection is quite extensive, particularly in southern Italy, especially when considering the death symbolism included in Dionysian worship; [58] [59] statues of Dionysus [60] [61] found in the Ploutonion at Eleusis gives further evidence as the statue bears a striking resemblance to the statue of Eubouleus [62] also known as the youthful depiction of the Lord of the Underworld.

The statue of Eubouleus is described as being radiant but disclosing a strange inner darkness. Archaic artist Xenocles portrayed on one side of a vase, Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, each with his emblems of power; with Hades' head turned back to front and, on the other side, Dionysus striding forward to meet his bride Persephone, with a kantharos in his hand, against a background of grapes.

Both Hades and Dionysus were associated with a divine tripartite deity with Zeus. Among the other appellations under which Hades or Pluto is generally known, are the following: [72] [73].

Hades was depicted so infrequently in artwork, as well as mythology, because the Greeks were so afraid of him.

Sometimes, artists painted Hades as looking away from the other gods, as he was disliked by them as well as humans.

As Plouton , he was regarded in a more positive light. He holds a cornucopia , representing the gifts he bestows upon people as well as fertility, which he becomes connected to.

In older Greek myths, the realm of Hades is the misty and gloomy [78] abode of the dead also called Erebus [78] where all mortals go when they die.

Very few mortals could leave Hades once they entered. The exceptions, Heracles and Theseus , are heroic. Later Greek philosophy introduced the idea that all mortals are judged after death and are either rewarded or cursed.

There were several sections of the realm of Hades, including Elysium , the Asphodel Meadows , and Tartarus.

The mythographer Apollodorus , describes Tartarus as "a gloomy place in Hades as far distant from earth as earth is distant from the sky.

A contrasting myth of the afterlife concerns the Garden of the Hesperides , often identified with the Isles of the Blessed , where the blessed heroes may dwell.

In Roman mythology , the entrance to the Underworld located at Avernus , a crater near Cumae , was the route Aeneas used to descend to the realm of the dead.

The di inferi were a collective of underworld divinities. For Hellenes, the deceased entered the underworld by crossing the Styx , ferried across by Charon kair'-on , who charged an obolus , a small coin for passage placed in the mouth of the deceased by pious relatives.

Paupers and the friendless gathered for a hundred years on the near shore according to Book VI of Vergil's Aeneid. Greeks offered propitiatory libations to prevent the deceased from returning to the upper world to "haunt" those who had not given them a proper burial.

The far side of the river was guarded by Cerberus , the three-headed dog defeated by Heracles Roman Hercules. Passing beyond Cerberus, the shades of the departed entered the land of the dead to be judged.

The five rivers of the realm of Hades, and their symbolic meanings, are Acheron the river of sorrow, or woe , Cocytus lamentation , Phlegethon fire , Lethe oblivion , and Styx hate , the river upon which even the gods swore and in which Achilles was dipped to render him invincible.

The Styx forms the boundary between the upper and lower worlds. See also Eridanos. The first region of Hades comprises the Fields of Asphodel , described in Odyssey xi, where the shades of heroes wander despondently among lesser spirits, who twitter around them like bats.

Only libations of blood offered to them in the world of the living can reawaken in them for a time the sensations of humanity. Beyond lay Erebus , which could be taken for a euphonym of Hades, whose own name was dread.

There were two pools, that of Lethe , where the common souls flocked to erase all memory, and the pool of Mnemosyne "memory" , where the initiates of the Mysteries drank instead.

In the forecourt of the palace of Hades and Persephone sit the three judges of the Underworld: Minos , Rhadamanthus , and Aeacus.

There at the trivium sacred to Hecate , where three roads meet, souls are judged, returned to the Fields of Asphodel if they are neither virtuous nor evil, sent by the road to Tartarus if they are impious or evil, or sent to Elysium Islands of the Blessed with the "blameless" heroes.

In the Sibylline oracles , a curious hodgepodge of Greco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian elements, Hades again appears as the abode of the dead, and by way of folk etymology , it even derives Hades from the name Adam the first man , saying it is because he was the first to enter there.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. God of the underworld in Greek mythology. This article is about the Greek god.

For the location, see Greek underworld and Hades in Christianity. For other uses, see Hades disambiguation. Homer , Odyssey Main article: Cerberus.

Main articles: Greek underworld and Hades in Christianity. Main article: Hades in popular culture. Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal.

Ivanov, p. Retrieved In Smith, William ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Boston: Little, Brown and Company. A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Euripides Alcestis: With Introduction and Commentary.

Retrieved 3 September The Greek Myths. Retrieved 18 January The Psychology of Dreams. Retrieved 5 September Princeton University Press.

A Companion to Greek Religion. A Different God? Berlin, Germany. The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Oxford: OUP Oxford.

Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Nysa was regarded as the birthplace and first home of Dionysus. In the iconography after his initiation Herakles in shown wearing a fringed white garment with a Dionysian deerskin thrown over it.

Kore is shown with her mother Demeter and a snake twined around the Mystery basket, foreshadowing the secret, as making friends with snakes was Dionysian [P.

The god of the Anthesteria was Dionysus, who celebrated his marriage in Athens amid flowers, the opening of wine jars, and the rising up of the souls of the dead [P.

There are two reliefs in a marble votive relief of the fourth century BCE. One depicts Kore crowning her mother Demeter, the deities at the second altar are Persephone and her husband Dionysus as the recumbent god has the features of the bearded Dionysus rather than of Plouton.

In his right hand, he raises not a cornucopia, the symbol of wealth, but a wine vessel and in his left, he bears the goblet for the wine. On another vase, Dionysus sits on his omphalos with his thryrsos in his left hand, sitting opposite Demeter, looking at each other severely.

Kore is shown moving from Demeter towards Dionysus, as if trying to reconcile them [P. The duplication of the mystery god as subterranean father and subterranean son, as Father Zagreus and the child Zagreus, husband and son of Persephone, has more to do with the mysteries of Dionysus than with the Eleusinian Mysteries.

But a duplication of the chthonian, mystical Dionysus is provided even by his youthful aspect, which became distinguished and classical as the son of Semele from the son of Persephone.

Semele, though not of Eleusinian origin, is also a double of Persephone [P. What is a God? The Classical Press of Wales.

The evidence for a cult connection between the two is quite extensive, particularly in Southern Italy, and the Dionysiac mysteries are associated with death rituals.

D "Votive inscriptions frequently mentioned Pluto but very rarely Hades.

Hades Greek God Information Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle. The parents of Hades were Cronus and Rhea. Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachythe battle of the Olympians versus the Titanswhich established Mrgreen Casino Bonus Codes rule of Zeus. He was the oldest male child of Cronus Www Isa Guide De Rhea. Pretzler, M. Artikel Information. They truly need to be seen to be appreciated. Corbett, P. New York. Paypal Casino Osterreich TB7WG75 to reference this item. Murray, M. In den Warenkorb. Kontakt und Service. Skydive-Sexy took it to Wann kommt hier der Bus Hades Greek God Information


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